Juni 9, 2021
Dakika 3. Soma

Kijani, Kijani, Fumba!

Mji wa kwanza wa kilimo barani Afrika upo Zanzibar. Jina: Fumba Town. Kichocheo cha uchawi: Fanya kama asili ingefanya! Hilo liligeuza miamba ya matumbawe kuwa paradiso ya kijani kibichi, na kuvutia wanunuzi wa nyumba kutoka mataifa 57. Siri ni nini? Na ulimwengu wote unaweza kujifunza kutoka kwake?

Wakazi wanaoishi katika Mji wa Fumba wana chumba cha mihadhara kwenye bustani yao ya mbele. Kabla tu ya machweo ya jua Franko Goehse amekusanya majirani wapatao ishirini karibu naye, akisikiliza kwa hamu anapowapeleka kwa 'warsha ya kuzunguka-zunguka'. Kwa nini bougainvillea hii ilipandwa huko? Kwa wazi: "Ni nani asiyependa rangi?" Na mti wa matunda? Bernadette Kirsch, mke na mshirika wa Goehse katika vita vya kijani kibichi, anajua jibu: "Itazalisha chakula kwa miaka 500 ijayo." Na vipi kuhusu minazi kando ya bahari, inayozunguka kwa upole kwenye upepo, kama vile Miami na Cuba? "Ni vizuia upepo", anaeleza Goehse, mwanzilishi wa Kampuni ya Permaculture Design (PDC) visiwani Zanzibar.

Kuna miji, na kuna miji ya kijani. Na kuna matukio ya kutisha, sio tu katika Afrika, wakati kila mvua kubwa huleta mafuriko, wakati watu wanajenga majengo ya kifahari lakini kutupa takataka zao kwenye ua unaofuata. "Hii hutokea wakati asili na miundombinu hazizingatiwi katika mipango miji", anasema mpangaji mazingira Bernadette Kirsch. "Permaculture yaani kilimo hai, hutunza watu na mazingira kwa wakati mmoja."

Mji uliojengwa kwenye masanduku ya kadi

 "Tulipoanzisha Mji wa Fumba na Taasisi yetu ya Vitendo vya Kilimo Zanzibar (PPIZ) mwaka 2015, tuliajiri watu kwa ajili ya kazi ambapo maelezo ya kazi hayakujulikana", Franko Goehse, 51, anakumbuka huku akitabasamu. Mengi yake yalikuwa ni kujifunza kwa kufanya. Unawezaje kuunda mji wa kijani kibichi? Goehse na mkewe Bernadette walichonga msingi kabisa wa Mji wa Fumba bila msingi wowote: “Tuliponda mawe ya matumbawe, tani zilizosagwa za vichaka, tukakusanya milima ya masanduku ya kadi kutoka kwa wenye maduka ya Mlandege, tukatandaza na kungoja tu msimu mmoja wa mvua kwa mchanganyiko huo. kugeuka kuwa mboji”, wanakumbuka waanzilishi, walioitwa kwa kufaa “Mr. na Bi. Green” na marafiki. Mzaliwa wa Ujerumani, Goehse aligundua na kukuza upendo wake kwa asili chini ya Kilimanjaro kama mpishi wa safari lodge kabla ya kuja Zanzibar.

Miaka sita baadaye yeye na mke wake wamewafunza wenyeji 700 katika bustani, kutengeneza mboji, kuchakata tena, ufugaji nyuki, mandhari, hata useremala na kujenga kwa vifaa vya asili kama vile Adobe. Wafanyakazi 25 katika kituo cha kuhifadhi nakala za kijani huhakikisha kuwa jiji jipya kutoka kwa ubao wa kuchora linapumua na kukua katika mwelekeo sahihi. Mawazo mapya ya kijani yanachunguzwa na siku: nyumba za mbao kwa ajili ya kukabiliana na mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa, hifadhi nzima ya skating iliyofanywa kwa mifuko ya ardhi. Wanandoa hao wa mazingira pia wamefaulu kubadilisha mali za kibinafsi na hoteli kuwa maeneo ya kijani kibichi endelevu, miongoni mwao ni Kizikula Design Hotel, Jambiani Villas na Aqua Resort karibu na Matemwe.

Miti kama baridi-kubwa

Ni nini hasa hufanya jiji la permaculture? 

  • Asilimia 94 ya ajabu ya taka za nyumbani hutungwa na kusaga tena Fumba; nusu ya takataka hubadilishwa kuwa udongo katika Fumba; nusu ya takataka hubadilishwa kuwa udongo
  • 157 mimea tofauti, miti na mboga bring food security and stability against pests and weeds – polyculture instead of monoculture is the motto 
  • Nazi, maembe, nyasi ya limao, mipapai, ndizi – yield tops beauty in permaculture. “Better a fruit tree than a manicured lawn”, says Goehse 
  • Mwavuli wa miti hupunguza halijoto kwa hadi nyuzi 7 na hivyo kupunguza mahitaji ya AC
  • Mabwawa ya maji hayachukui kelele na vumbi tu, bali pia hulisha chavusha kwa wadudu kama vile vipepeo; samaki katika bwawa tena hula mbu
  • Mifereji ya maji ya kijani kibichi na barabara za mawe badala ya barabara za lami hunyonya maji ya thamani ya mvua na kuzuia mafuriko

In the long run, Fumba Town at the shore of the Indian Ocean, is meant to house 20,000 residents; several hundred houses and flats are already occupied  – a role model of affordable modern living in Africa, a green investment for locals and foreigners alike. “It’s all about creating cycles of sustainability”, say Sebastian and Tobias Dietzold, the the chief developers of Fumba Town. Proudly the brothers noted:  “Whenever a potential home buyer looks at our seaside town in Zanzibar, it’s often the permaculture idea sealing the deal.” 

Shiriki hii

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